Primary Sources:

Deed Book 54. Fauquier Courthouse, Warrenton, VA, [Deed from Edward C. Marshall to Hezekiah Gaskins 1854] 122. Afro-American Historical Association, The Plains, VA.

Deed Book 63. Fauquier Courthouse, Warrenton, VA, [Deed from Edward C. Marshall to Fanny Gaskins and her five children 1871] 498. Afro-American Historical Association, The Plains, VA.

Ended Cause. Fauquier Courthouse, Warrenton, VA, [Fauquier County, VA, Free Negro List July 25, 1861]. Afro-American Historical Association, The Plains, VA.

Land Records. Fauquier Courthouse, Warrenton, VA, [Census Index- Gaskins 1860]. Afro-American Historical Association, The Plains, VA.

Will Book. Fauquier Courthouse, Warrenton, VA, [Will and Probate Hezekiah Gaskins 1854]. Afro-American Historical Association, The Plains, VA.

1850 Census. Fauquier County, Virginia. Accessed November 6, 2023. https://www.ancestrylibrary.com/discoveryui-content/view/15012191:8054?tid=&pid=&queryId=9e1f8f8965c96fb7fda2d31c152ac35f&_phsrc=pIr1&_phstart=successSource

1850 U.S. Census. Fauquier County, Virginia. Accessed November 6, 2023. https://www.ancestrylibrary.com/discoveryui-content/view/15007288:8054?tid=&pid=&queryId=0817d3de-4bc2-4be2-acf1-be089eef1400&_phsrc=BeY1&_phstart=successSource.

1870 U.S. Census. Fauquier County, Virginia.  Accessed November 6, 2023. https://www.ancestrylibrary.com/discoveryui-content/view/39166449:7163?tid=&pid=&queryId=d2a432a1237f06b59567d4ca77f7f869&_phsrc=pIr2&_phstart=successSource

Secondary Sources:

Ballagh, James. A History of Slavery in Virginia. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1902. https://www.ancestraltrackers.net/va/resources/history-slavery-virginia-v24.pdf.

Gaskins, Courtney, Ibrahim, Karen, and Karen White. Fauquier Register of Free Negroes, 117-1865. The Plains: Afro-American Historical Association of Fauquier County, 1993.

“Fauquier Register of Free Negroes.” Accessed November 23, 2023. https://freeafricanamericans.com/fauquierfn.htm.

Jewett, Clayton E., and John O. Allen. Slavery in the South a State-by-State History. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Johnson, Ahmed. “Research Guides: African American Genealogical Research: Introduction.” Library of Congress. Accessed November 23, 2023. https://guides.loc.gov/african-american-genealogical-research/introduction.

Kluskens, Claire. “Federal Records That Help Identify Former Enslaved People and Slave Holders.” National Archives and Records Administration, 2018. https://www.archives.gov/files/calendar/genealogy-fair/2018/2-kluskens-handout.pdf.

Library of Virginia. “African American Research at the Library of Virginia to 1870.” Accessed December 5, 2023. https://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/guides/burned_juris/superior_courts_info.htm.https://lva-virginia.libguides.com/c.php?g=1162917&p=8489814.

Library of Virginia. “Research Guides & Indexes: African American Research at the Library of Virginia to 1870: Enslaved or Free.” Last modified, 2023. Accessed November 23, 2023. https://lva-virginia.libguides.com/c.php?g=1162917&p=8489814.

Library of Virginia. “Superior Courts of Chancery Information.” Accessed November 30, 2023. https://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/guides/burned_juris/superior_courts_info.htm.

Mitchell, Anthony B. “Self-Emancipation and Slavery: An Examination of the African American’s Quest for Literacy and Freedom.” The Journal of Pan African Studies 2, no. 5  (July 2008): 78-98.

Russell, John H. The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619-1865. New York: Johns Hopkins Press, 1913.

Schweninger, Loren. “Property Owning Free African-American Women in the South, 1800-1870.” Journal of Women’s History 1, no. 3 (1990): 13-44. https://doi.org/10.1353/jowh.2010.0034.

Schermerhorn, Calvin. Unrequited Toil: A History of United States Slavery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. doi:10.1017/9781139226585.

Stevenson, Brenda E. Life in Black and White : Family and Community in the Slave South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Thomas, Velma. “Introduction.” In Finding a Place Called Home: A Guide to African-American Genealogy and Historical Identity. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1999.

National Archives. “The Freedmen’s Bureau.” Last modified, 2016. Accessed November 23, 2023. https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/freedmens-bureau.

Virginia Memory. “African American Narrative – Related Resources & Complementary Collections.” Last modified, May 2018. Accessed November 30, 2023. https://www.virginiamemory.com/collections/aan/aan_related_resources.pdf.

Virginia Memory. “Chancery Records Index FAQ.” Accessed December 6, 2023. https://www.lva.virginia.gov/chancery/faq.htm#:~:text=These%20types%20of%20court%20documents,of%20land%20disputes%2C%20and%20divorce.

Washington, Reginald. “The Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company and African American Genealogical Research.” Prologue 29, no. 1 (1997).

Williams, Heather Andrea. Help Me to Find My People : The African American Search for Family Lost in Slavery. 1st ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Woodtor, Dee. Finding a Place Called Home : a Guide to African-American Genealogy and Historical Identity. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1999.

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